Input/output library

< cpp

C++ includes two input/output libraries: a modern, stream-based I/O library and the standard set of C-style I/O functions.


[edit] Stream-based I/O

The stream-based input/output library is organized around abstract input/output devices. These abstract devices allow the same code to handle input/output to files, memory streams, or custom adaptor devices that perform arbitrary operations (e.g. compression) on the fly.

Most of the classes are templated, so they can be adapted to any basic character type. Separate typedefs are provided for the most common basic character types (char and wchar_t). The classes are organized into the following hierarchy:

cpp/io/ios basecpp/io/basic ioscpp/io/basic istreamcpp/io/basic ostreamcpp/io/basic ifstreamcpp/io/basic istringstreamcpp/io/basic iostreamcpp/io/basic ofstreamcpp/io/basic ostringstreamcpp/io/basic fstreamcpp/io/basic stringstreamstd-io-complete-inheritance.svg
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Inheritance diagram

manages formatting flags and input/output exceptions
manages an arbitrary stream buffer
(class template)
abstracts a raw device
(class template)
wraps a given abstract device (std::basic_streambuf)
and provides high-level input interface
(class template)
wraps a given abstract device (std::basic_streambuf)
and provides high-level output interface
(class template)
wraps a given abstract device (std::basic_streambuf)
and provides high-level input/output interface
(class template)
File I/0 implementation
implements raw file device
(class template)
implements high-level file stream input operations
(class template)
implements high-level file stream output operations
(class template)
implements high-level file stream input/output operations
(class template)
String I/0 implementation
implements raw string device
(class template)
implements high-level string stream input operations
(class template)
implements high-level string stream output operations
(class template)
implements high-level string stream input/output operations
(class template)
Array I/O implementations
implements raw character array device
implements character array input operations
implements character array output operations
implements character array input/output operations

[edit] Typedefs

The following typedefs for common character types are provided:

typedef basic_ios<char>                ios;
typedef basic_ios<wchar_t>            wios;
typedef basic_streambuf<char>     streambuf;
typedef basic_streambuf<wchar_t> wstreambuf;
typedef basic_filebuf<char>         filebuf;
typedef basic_filebuf<wchar_t>     wfilebuf;
typedef basic_stringbuf<char>     stringbuf;
typedef basic_stringbuf<wchar_t> wstringbuf;
typedef basic_istream<char>         istream;
typedef basic_istream<wchar_t>     wistream;
typedef basic_ostream<char>         ostream;
typedef basic_ostream<wchar_t>     wostream;
typedef basic_iostream<char>       iostream;
typedef basic_iostream<wchar_t>   wiostream;
typedef basic_ifstream<char>       ifstream;
typedef basic_ifstream<wchar_t>   wifstream;
typedef basic_ofstream<char>       ofstream;
typedef basic_ofstream<wchar_t>   wofstream;
typedef basic_fstream<char>         fstream;
typedef basic_fstream<wchar_t>     wfstream;
typedef basic_istringstream<char>     istringstream;
typedef basic_istringstream<wchar_t> wistringstream;
typedef basic_ostringstream<char>     ostringstream;
typedef basic_ostringstream<wchar_t> wostringstream;
typedef basic_stringstream<char>       stringstream;
typedef basic_stringstream<wchar_t>   wstringstream;

Predefined standard stream objects:

extern  istream  cin;   //standard input (stdin)
extern wistream wcin;
extern  ostream  cout;  //standard output (stdout)
extern wostream wcout;
extern  ostream  cerr;  //standard error (stderr)
extern wostream wcerr;
extern  ostream  clog;  //standard log (stdlog)
extern wostream wclog;

[edit] I/O Manipulators

The stream-based I/O library uses I/O manipulators (e.g. std::boolalpha, std::hex, etc.) to control how streams behave.

[edit] Types

The following auxiliary type are defined:

Defined in header <ios>
represents relative file/stream position (offset from fpos), sufficient to represent any file size
represents the number of characters transferred in an I/O operation or the size of an I/O buffer
represents absolute position in a stream or a file
(class template)

Four specializations of std::fpos are provided:

Defined in header <ios>
Type Definition
streampos std::fpos<std::char_traits<char>::state_type>
u16streampos std::fpos<std::char_traits<char16_t>::state_type>
u32streampos std::fpos<std::char_traits<char32_t>::state_type>
wstreampos std::fpos<std::char_traits<wchar_t>::state_type>

[edit] Error category interface

Defined in header <ios>
the IO stream error codes
(enum) [edit]
identifies the iostream error category
(function) [edit]

[edit] C-style IO

C++ also includes the input/output functions defined by C, such as std::fopen, std::getc, etc.